Intranet and Internet Glossary
financial institution that operates payment gateways for authorizing
and accepting Internet credit card transactions from merchants on
behalf of merchants' banks.
Microsoft's object development
framework. When embedded into HTML documents, ActiveX components are
downloaded and executed on the client. ActiveX is currently
(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) -- A
variation of Digital Subscriber Line designed for an upstream data
flow (client-to-server) which is a fraction of the downstream data
flow (server-to-client). Typically the upstream data flow is
measured in kilobits per second while the downstream data flow is
measured in megabits per second (e.g. 6 megabits per second over
standard phone lines).
A transmission mode in which data is
represented by a continuously varying electrical signal.
(Anonymous File Transfer Protocol)
-- An interactive service provided by many Internet hosts allowing any
user to transfer documents, files, programs, and other archived data
using File Transfer Protocol.
Small Java programs that run on Web
A tool for locating files that are publicly
available by anonymous FTP.
Projects Agency Network) -- The precursor to the Internet. Developed
in the late 60s and early 70s by the US Department of Defense, it
served as the basis for early networking research, as well as a
central backbone during the development of the Internet.
(American Standard Code for Information
Interchange) -- A seven-bit character set used to exchange
alphanumeric information between computer systems.
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode) -- An
international networking standard in which multiple service types
(such as voice, video, or data) are conveyed in fixed-length
An application that
supports document creation; can refer to anything from an HTML
helper application to an integrated publishing environment that
allows the user to create pages for the World Wide
A high-speed line or
series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network.
Measure of the information capacity of a
transmission channel. Strictly speaking, bandwidth is the
difference, expressed in hertz (Hz), between the highest and lowest
frequencies of the channel.
usage the baud rate of a modem is how many bits it can send or
receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per
second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example, a 1200
bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits
per baud (4 x 300 = 1200 bits per second).
System) -- Computer system used as an information source and message
switching system for a particular interest group. A place that
allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files,
and make announcements.
HEXadecimal) -- A format commonly used in sending large files and
images over the Internet.
methods that measure physical characteristics or personal traits,
such as hand profiles or voice prints, to verify a person's
identity. Uses include security access and fraud
(Binary DigIT) -- The units -- 0 or
1 -- used in the binary numbering system.
(Bits Per Second) -- A common measurement of
the speed at which data is moved from one place to another.
that allows a person to read hypertext and view graphical images.
Provides a means of viewing the contents of Web pages and navigating
from one Web page or Web server to another.
series of bits of data, usually 8 or 16 bits, that are handled as a
A small fast memory holding
recently-accessed data, designed to speed up subsequent access to
the same data. Most often applied to processor-memory access but
also used for a local copy of data accessible over a network etc.
Used to copy someone on an email
European Laboratory for Particle Physics
located near Geneva, Switzerland. Birthplace of the World Wide
entity that attests to the identity of a person or an organization.
A Certificate Authority might be an external company such as
VeriSign that offers certificate services or they might be an
internal organization such as a corporate MIS department. The
Certificate Authority's chief function is to verify the identity of
entities and issue digital certificates attesting to that
(Common Gateway Interface) -- A
standard for running external programs from a World-Wide Web HTTP
server. CGI specifies how to pass arguments to the executing program
as part of the HTTP request. It also defines a set of environment
variables. Commonly, the program will generate some HTML which will
be passed back to the browser, but it can also request URL
most common name of a directory on a Web server in which CGI
programs are stored.
A software program that is used to
contact and obtain data from a server software program on another
computer, often across a great distance. Each client program is
designed to work with one or more specific kinds of server programs,
and each server requires a specific kind of client. A Web browser is
a specific kind of client.
A mechanism for
storing persistent information on a Web client that can be used by a
Term originated by author
William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer in the early 1980s. It
describes a new world, created by intersecting computer
A self-contained, independent
entity of data carrying sufficient information to be routed from the
source to the destination computer without reliance on earlier
exchanges between this source and destination computer and the
equipment, or facilities involved in establishing a temporary
connection via the switched telephone
(Domain Name Service) -- A service
that supports the use of a name such as www.company.com rather than
a cryptic IP address such as 204.147.276.50.
Exclusive name that identifies an Internet
The electronic transfer of
information from one source to another.
(Digital Subscriber Line) A digital
telecommunications protocol for use over existing copper telephone
lines, as opposed to optical fiber. Also, High-Speed Digital
Subscriber Line (HDSL).
HTML is the language that
describes how text and images are displayed on a Web page. Dynamic
HTML presents richly formatted pages that lets users interact with
the content on those pages without having to download additional
content from the server. This means that a page can respond
immediately to user actions, such as a mouse click, without having
to retrieve an entire new page from the server. Dynamic HTML gives
developers precise control over formatting, fonts, and layout, and
provides a dramatically enhanced object model for making pages
(Electronic Mail) -- Messages,
usually text, sent from one person to another via a computer
Process of converting
information into a secure form that cannot be read by others until
it is decoded.
Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standard data link protocol that
specifies how data is placed on and retrieved from a common
transmission medium. Forms the underlying transport vehicle used by
several upper-level protocols, including TCP/IP and XNS. See CSMA/CD
(Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect) for a description
of Ethernet's media-access method.
Internet-oriented standards, technologies, and products between
different companies, such as TCP/IP as the transport, HTTP servers
for presenting documents, and SMTP and POP servers for mail.
Typically used to increase productivity and function as a
collaborative processing infrastructure between partner companies.
They increase productivity and function as a collaborative
Questions) -- Documents that list and answer common questions on a
technology based on the 10BASE-T Ethernet CSMA/CD network access
(Fiber Distributed Data Interface) --
LAN technology, defined by American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) X3T9.5, that specifies an 100- Mbps token-passing network
using fiber-optic cable.
software tool for locating people on other Internet
A router or access server that
serves as a buffer between connected networks or interfaces. Uses
access lists, protocol filters, and other methods, to safeguard
An angry response to an
electronic posting, usually in a newsgroup.
packet-switching wide-area technology for interconnecting LANs at
high speeds. Defines the interface between user equipment and a WAN,
but does not define internal operation of the network or the
interfaces or protocols used within the WAN itself. For this reason,
the term "frame relay cloud" is often used to describe the
internal operation of a WAN that has a frame relay interface.
Protocol) -- An Internet application and protocol commonly used to
move files between two Internet sites, servers, or
Device that can interconnect
networks with different, incompatible communications protocols. The
gateway performs a layer-7 protocol-conversion to translate one set
of protocols to another (for example, from TCP/IP to SNA or from
TCP/IP to X.25). A gateway operates at Open Systems Interconnection
(OSI) layers up through the Session Layer.
(Graphics Interchange Format) -- A format
developed in the mid-1980s by CompuServe for use in photo-quality
graphics images. Now commonly used in online Web
(Global Internet Exchange) -- The process
and equipment by which Internet traffic between backbone providers
is concentrated and exchanged. There are several physical GIX
locations, the largest being in Washington, D.C. There is also a GIX
center in Sweden.
A program on the
Internet that organizes information into menus and lets users jump
from one point on the "net" to another.
Applications that let network users work
collaboratively on common files.
visitor's first point of entry to a Web site; typically features a
A domain name that has an IP address record
associated with it; any computer system connected to the Internet.
A connection to a document or other file on the Internet.
Generally appears as a highlighted word or image for selection on
the browser interface.
(HyperText Markup Language) -- A
computer language for describing a page of information for display
on the World Wide Web.
Protocol) -- The protocol for exchanging HTML pages over the World
device used to interconnect other LAN devices, usually in a star
Text in one document that is linked
electronically to text in another document or another part of the
The global collection of
interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP
Use of Internet-oriented
standards, technologies, and products to enhance productivity and to
function as a collaborative processing infrastructure within an
(Internet Protocol) -- The
packet-switching protocol for network communications between
Method used by hackers
to break into computers over the Internet using the IP address, the
computer's Internet ID.
IPSec is an emerging
standard to add security services to the IP protocol. It provides
robust security, encompassing user authentication, privacy, and data
Formal designation for the next generation Internet
Protocol being developed within the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF), which will enable continued growth of the Internet. Designed
to alleviate anticipated shortages of IP addresses and router
overload, as well as provide for autoconfiguration, network layer
security and quality of service capabilities unavailable in IPv4.
Also known as IPng, where the "ng" represents "next
(Internet Relay Chat) -- The Internet protocol
that defines real-time communications between a server and a group
of clients over the Internet.
Services Digital Network) -- International digital communications
protocol, offered by telephone companies, that permits telephone
networks to carry data, voice, and other traffic.
(International Standards Organization) --
Organization responsible for a wide range of standards, including
many relevant to networking. Developed the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) reference model, widely used in networking
(Internet Service Provider) -- An entity
that provides public access to the Internet.
A portable, secure programming environment
that allows developers to create applications for HTML
An easy-to-use, object-oriented
scripting language designed for creating dynamic applications that
link objects and resources residing on Internet clients and
(Joint Photographic Experts Group) --
A compressed file format for digital images.
(Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) -- An IEEE
standard for tunneling that includes the ability to terminate
tunnels at either the NSP or enterprise network, to apply access
policies at the firewall, and to perform tunnel
(Local Area Network) -- A set of
computers connected together to share common resources, such as
printers. Computers connected on a LAN have the ability to share
applications or files from a local file server and are able to make
connections to other LANs or the Internet via
(Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol) -- An open standard for storing and retrieving names,
addresses, email, phone numbers, and other information from an
online directory. Used to build online directories on enterprise
networks, as well as Internet-based online
A transmission line
reserved by a communications carrier for the private use of a
A sequence of numbers and letters
that uniquely identify a user for access to computer
A million bits.
A million bytes. A thousand
Software that operates
between the application and the control program, providing a single
programming interface for an application.
(Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions) -- A standard that allows users to send and receive
electronic mail messages with multimedia content over the
"to mirror" is to maintain an exact copy of something. The
most common use of the term on the Internet refers to "mirror
sites" which are Web FTP sites that maintain exact copies of
material originated at another location, usually in order to provide
more widespread access to the resource. Another common use of the
term "mirror" refers to an arrangement where information
is written to more than one hard disk simultaneously, so that if one
disk fails, the computer keeps on working without losing data.
(MOdulator, DEModulator) -- A device used to
convert serial digital data to a signal for transmission over a
Early public-domain Web
browser, developed at the National Center for Supercomputing
The process of
moving from one web site to another using a web browser, usually
accomplished by following links embedded in web
A light-hearted term referring to a
citizen of the Internet community.
communications system that links two or more computers. May be as
simple as a cable strung between two computers a few feet apart, or
as complex as hundreds of thousands of computers around the world
linked through fiber optic cables, phones lines, and
An area where people can
discuss common topics by leaving postings, as on a bulletin board,
that others can read when they log on. "Newsgroups"
generally refer to discussions on USENET, which most people access
via the Internet.
A point of interconnection
to a network. Any station, terminal, or communications processor in
a computer network.
Type of data transfer that occupies a
communication link only during the time of actual data transmission.
Messages are split into packets and reassembled at the receiving end
of the communication link.
A code used to gain access to a
(Practical Extraction and
Report Language) -- An interpreted language that originated with
UNIX. On many Web servers, Perl is used as an easy programming
language suitable for writing simple CGI scripts; these scripts are
called by HTML pages and executed on the server.
(Pretty Good Privacy) -- A high-security
cryptographic software application that allows people to exchange
messages with both privacy and authentication.
Small applications that add new
functionality to a Web browser. For example, an audio plug-in allows
a browser user to listen to audio files on a Web page or in an email
(Point of Presence) -- Physical access
point to a long distance carrier or Internet service provider
The Internet standard for mail
An interface on a networking device.
A number that identifies a particular Internet application.
(Point to Point Protocol) -- A protocol that
allows a computer to use the Internet protocols (TCP/IP) with a
standard phone line and a high-speed modem.
(Point to Point Tunneling Protocol) -
Protocol used to create LAN-to-LAN tunnels between Windows NT
servers that have installed the PPTP protocol. PPTP wraps and
encrypts IP packets and sends them to a destination server. This
provides secure tunneling between sites from within NT, without
extra equipment or changes to the network. This protocol is used to
provide security for data when accessing a company network remotely,
through the Internet.
A formal set of rules
and conventions that govern how devices on a network exchange
An entity that caches frequently accessed
documents to conserve network bandwidth and reduce network response
times for users.
(Public Switched Telephone Network) -- The
worldwide public telephone systems.
Term used to
describe remote user access via a telecommunications system to the
(Request For Comments) A Document series
used as the primary means for communicating information about the
A special-purpose, network layer device
that manages the connection between two or more networks. The device
makes decisions about which of several paths the network (or
Internet) traffic will follow.
Information often stored as a text file that is
used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection. Security
Certificates contain information about who it belongs to, who it was
issued by, a unique serial number or other unique identification,
valid dates, and an encrypted "fingerprint" that can be
used to verify the contents of the certificate. In order for an SSL
connection to be created both sides must have a valid Security
A computer, or a software package, that
provides a specific kind of service to client software running on
other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of
software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the
software is running. A single server machine could have several
different server software packages running on it, thus providing
many different servers to clients on the network.
(Serial Line Internet Protocol) -- A
protocol that allows a computer to use the Internet protocols
(TCP/IP) with a standard phone line and a high-speed
(Switched Multimegabit Data Service) --
A high-speed, fiber-based LAN interconnection service that allows
users to use a public network service to allocate wide area
bandwidth as it is needed.
Transport Protocol) -- The Internet standard protocol for
transferring electronic mail messages from one computer to another.
SMTP specifies how two mail systems interface and the format of
control messages they exchange to transfer mail.
(Simple Network Management Protocol) --A
network management protocol for the exchange of information among
network components. Network management applications use this
information to provide network managers with views into network
traffic for device configuration, troubleshooting, and network
The sending of unsolicited email to a large
number of people.
Language) A standard language for querying relational and other
(Secure Sockets Layer) -- The
encrypted security protocol implemented by Netscape in its browsers
and servers to provide secure transactions over the Web.
Digital wide area communications circuit
provided by telephone carriers for voice and data transmission
(1.544 Mbps in U.S.; 2.054 Mbps in Europe); may be divided in 24
separate 64 Kb channels.
Digital wide area
communications circuit standard (44.736 Mbps in the U.S.; 34.368
Mbps in Europe).
Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- A suite of protocols that performs
the transfer of data across internetworks, including the Internet.
The command and program used to login from
one Internet site to another.
A chain of articles or messages
posted in response to an originating article or
Local area network architecture that connects stations in
a closed loop and grants permission to send by circulating a
A multi-user operating system developed by
AT&T Bell Labs and currently popular as an application server operating system.
(Universal Resource Locator) -- Uniquely
identifies a file available on the World Wide Web.
A worldwide system of discussion groups,
with comments passed among hundreds of thousands of
(UNIX to UNIX Encoding) -- A
program that encodes binary information, such as graphic images or
document files, so that they can be sent across the Internet via
(Very Easy Rodent
Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives) -- Developed at
the University of Nevada, Veronica is a constantly updated database
of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of gopher
servers. The Veronica database can be searched from most major
Code written to infect computers with
destructive macros or applications.
Private Network) -- Provides a mechanism for forwarding dial-up data
packets over the Internet in such a way that end users appear as if
connected directly to their destination or home network. This is
done using a technique called tunneling. Tunnels represent virtual,
dedicated connections between the dial-up access point and a
destination point somewhere on the network. The destination is
usually the point at which a corporation or an enterprise is
connected to the Internet.
Modeling Language) A way to specify a 3D scene for viewing over the
World Wide Web.
(Wide Area Information Servers) --
Sophisticated indexing and search tool for full-text databases.
(Wide Area Network) -- Computer
network serving a wide geographic area.
Web sites are collections of
electronic "pages". Each Web page is an HTML (HyperText
Markup Language) document that may contain text, images, or media
(What You See Is What You Get) -- Refers to
authoring systems that display a document as it will appear on
screen, even as the user is creating or editing it.
Web) -- A collection of Internet host systems that provide
information on the Internet, usually in the form of hypermedia.